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POPULATION: 3.5 million
AREA: 1,566,000 sq km (610,740 sq mi)
LAND BOUNDARIES: 8,158 km, with Russia 3,485 km and

with China 4,673 km

AVERAGE ALTITUDE: 1,580 m above sea-level
TERRAIN: Vast semi-desert and desert plains, mountains in

west and southwest, Gobi Desert in southeast

PEOPLE: Khalkha Mongols (86%), Kazaks (6%), about a

dozen other Mongolian ethnic groups

LANGUAGES: Mongolian, Kazakh, Russian, Chinese. English is    widely spoken in the Ulaanbaatar.
RELIGIONS: Tibetan Buddhism, Muslim, Christian and


CLIMATE: Average summer temperature +20’C, average winter temperature -26’C, average rainfall 200-220 mm. Winter lasts from November to late April, Spring from May through June, Summer from July through September.
POLITICAL SYSTEM: Parliamentary republic. President elected for four years. Present President Khurelsukh Uhnaa,  elected in 2021. Prime Minister appointed by State Great   Khural for four years. Present Prime Minister        Mr. Oyun-Erdene Luvsannamsrain was appointed in 2021.
LEGISLATURE: State Great Khural (Parliament), unicameral with    76 members elected for four years. The last election was held in 2020.
JUDICIAL SYSTEM: Mongolian judicial system consists of                          Constitutional Court , Supreme Court, Aimag and   capital city courts, soum and district courts.
STATE STRUCTURE: Mongolia is a unitary state and divided                      administratively into Aimags (21) and a capital city; Aimags are subdivided into soums; soums into        bags; and a capital city into districts; districts into  khoroos.
NATIONAL CURRENCY: Tugrik (MNT), about MNT 3400 = USD 1 (by FEB  2024)
FISCAL YEAR: January 1 – December 31
MAIN ENTRY POINTS: Chinggis Khaan (airport in Ulaanbaatar ),                  Sukhbaatar (railway station on Mongolian-Russian border), Tsagaannuur (Passing point of Russian border in Bayan-Ulgii province) Zamyn Uud (railway station on Mongolian-Chinese border)
SEA ACCESS: Tianjin/China (1,344 km) and Nakhodka/Russia (4,037 km)
PUBLIC HOLIDAYS: December 31- January 1 – New Year 3 days,
in January/February – Mongolian New Year           (Tsagaan Sar),
June 1 – Mother and Child day,
July 11-13 – National Holiday (Naadam festival)
TIME: Add 7-8 hours to Greenwich Mean Time
NORMAL WORKING HOURS: 09.00-13.00 and 14.00-18.00
VISA ARRANGEMENTS: Visa shall be issued by Mongolia Embassies and        Diplomatic Missions as well as Honorary consuls of Mongolia , or can be obtained at the airport at a       cost of US$53 but must be accompanied by an invitation.

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